On Monday, Azerbaijan celebrated the 94th anniversary of establishing the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. The two years following events of 28 May 1918 laid the foundations of the country that nowadays enjoys its independence.
The creation of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) was inextricably linked with the national independence movement. The history of the Republic is marked by significant events and great achievements of its citizens in the spheres such as economy and culture, which many decades later allowed to make the establishment of independent Azerbaijan a reality.
The official document “Declaration of Independence” included a proclamation of a republic, governed by authorities elected by all adult citizens through voting. The first head of the ADR government, located in Ganja, the new country’s capital since 30 May 1918, was Fatali Khan Khoyski. The first session of the Azerbaijani Parliament, consisting of 120 deputies, was officially opened by Mammad Amin Rasulzade, who pointed at that moment to the tricolour flag and uttered the well-known words: “The flag once raised will never fall!” – the motto of the Azerbaijani independence movement in the 20th century and of the present independent state itself. The Parliament of ADR adopted numerous necessary laws regarding citizenship, press and education, among others, for the benefit of the nation. The Republic had its own army and a national anthem.
However, the young Azerbaijan Democratic Republic had also strong enemies. On 27 – 28 April 1920, its borders were crossed by the XI Red Army, coming to establish the Soviet power in the region. In order not to spill blood of civilians, the Parliament of the ADR decided to hand over the power to Soviets. Thus, on 28 April 1920, the Republic ceased to exist.